The statutes of limitations are definite but differ from state to state. Sometimes there are accommodations for minors. Consult an experienced medical malpractice lawyer and usually you will get a free consultation.
Medical malpractice includes all health care professionals and not just doctors but doctors, nurses, psychologists, and hospitals, as well.
Negligence is the issue in most medical malpractice cases concerning a doctor. You have to prove that the doctor had a duty to you with an established doctor-patient relationship and the doctor made a mistake in your diagnosis or treatment that isn't what would happen in a normal situation.
Perhaps the doctor actually injured you or the treatment or prescribed treatment errors caused an injury to you. If as a result of this, you sustained losses, it may be time to lawyer up right away.
People can have bad results from surgery or even suffer death, and there is no malpractice.
In the practice of medicine it is a difficult practice to guarantee results, but if a doctor doesn't follow professional standards,it becomes an issue. The doctor or medical professional has to use skill and care and be concerned about the patient's treatment.
It could be considered malpractice if the doctor or professional fails to diagnose some illness, makes surgical mistakes, delays treatments, doesn't order tests, or screws up the medications, etc..
Medical malpractice cases can be long drawn out affairs and be very costly to both parties. Usually doctors have a lot of malpractice insurance and are familiar with malpractice attorneys that defend doctors.
You will need copies of all of your medical records. You should also take a lot of notes about any appointments that were unreasonably delayed or requested tests that weren't done etc as these will not be in your patient record.
If you choose a good malpractice lawyer, they will probably be able to give you good advice about whether you are likely to win or not.
There is more information available online and perhaps you will be interested in this article on personal injuries lawsuits.